Encephalartos tegulaneus over the hillside of Ol Olokwe table mountain, central Kenya


Cycads - the order Cycadales - dominated the Earth among plants in the second half of the Mesozoic era among 250 million and 60 million years ago.  In contrast to dinosaurs, who disappeared abruptly towards the end of mesozoic era, the more tenacious cycads, though in a much reduced  number of species, have survived to the present day. All cycads are gymnosperm dioecious plants. Cycads are divided into 4 families and at present they can be found in the wild mostly in tropical regions in Africa, the Comores,  Madagascar and Mauritius, India, South East Asi and Australia, South, Central and North America and West Indies.


The plants are protected by difficult access to population.



It was recognised as a new  species based on collection, photos and paintings by Joy Adamson, of "Born free" fame.


E. tegulaneus female cones


Male cones


One year old seedling


A young plant, protected by its growth position among the boulders

E. transvenosus, sacred Mudjadli Forest, Limpopo, South Africa


Rock Python, the biggest snake of Africa, among E. transvenosus plants

E. transvenosus female cones

Encephalartos altensteinii, near to  Port Alfred, Eastern Cape, South Africa

























Encephalartos princeps on the Kei River banks, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Stangeria eriopus, Umtamvuna Nature Reserve, Kwazulu - Natal, South Africa.


Stangeria eriopus, Natal grass cycad, the only member of the Stangeriaceae family. The plant was originally described  as  a  fern. However in 1951, a plant sent to Kew Gardens by dr. Stanger produced cones and revealed its true cycad character. It differs from other cycads by its peculiar appearance and biochemical composition, for example the absence of bioflavonoids in leaves.


Encephalartos ghellinckii, Drakensberg, Natal, South Africa. One of few cycad species surviving regular snow cover and frosts.


Canarina eminii, Eastern Africa



The flower



Cycas thouarsii with 240 cm stem diameter, Mauritius.


The distributin of this species outside Madagascar is caused by its floating seeds or by Arab trading in the past.

Lepidozamia peroffskyana, New South Walles, Australia

Cycas media with partly burnt stem caused by regular grass-fires in Queensland, Australia

Cycas media, procumbent charred stem regenerating by new crowns

Cycas media, mature seeds


Bowenia spectabilis, Queensland, Australia

Lepidozamia hopei, the world´s biggest  cycad, Queensland, Australia


Leaf detail


Coralloid roots

Halong Bay, Viet Nam

Cycad species, Halong Bay, Vietnam


Cycas bifida, Guanxi, China

Double - divided C. bifida leaflets

C. bifida, young leaf

Male cone, C. bifida

Inmature female cone, C. bifida


C. bifida mature seeds

Cycas debaoensis, Debao, China

Cycas micholitzii on a steep slope, Kon Tum, Vietnam


"Without doubt, Cycas micholitzii is one of the most distinctive and beautiful species of the genus. The nearly subterranean stem usually produces only one to three leaves, but beauty of these leaves is hard to imagine...."  Loran M. Whitelock, The Cycads,  p. 126.


C. micholitzii, male and inmature female cones

C. micholitzii female cone detail

C. micholitzii mature seeds

Rare C. micholitzii seedlings in culture

Cycas pectinata growing on a carstic wall above the Nam Song river, Vang Vieng, Laos

Cycas pectinata, a leaf.




Srí Lanka

Cycas Zeylanica, v současnosti endemický na ostrově Andaman a Nicobar - stará rostlina v botanické zahradě v Colombu.



Nová žárovka na trunku


Encephalartos hildebrandtii - samčí šišky



Vícenásobně rozdělený kmen antientní rostliny


V podrostu našlo útočiště mnoho malých tvůrců


Ahaetula spec.








Zamia neurophyllidia s ženskými kužely, náš průvodce Lenin, Kostarika




Zamia  fairchildiana s ženskými kužely,  NP Corcovado  , Kostarika



Kuželův detail



Velké Antily - domov slavného Microcycas Calocoma a rodu Zamia




Načervenalá barva mladých listů některých druhů Zamia v kontrastu s intenzivní zelenou barvou dospělých listů


Zralý ženský kužel, Zamia spec. Barracoa



Samčí šišky, Zamia angustifolia

Zralé mužské šišky Zamia angustifolia, detai



 Z. angustifolia ženský kužel se dozrávajícími semeny



Malé Antily - bohatství endemické flóry včetně druhů Zamia